WRF Water Reuse Research

This chart lists a portfolio of WERF/WRRF reports and ongoing research efforts for WRF's Water Reuse program. The timeframe is primarily from the past five years of research from the two former research foundations (Water Environment Research Foundation and WateReuse Research Foundation).

NOTE: To search for older reports on optimization, go to www.werf.org/search and enter "water reuse" or another related topic, or enter a project or report number if you know it.

NOTE: To search for WRRF reports that are not on this list, please use watereuse.org/research.

 Completed Projects

Summary (PDF)

 Year Completed

Direct Potable Reuse (DPR) Research
Integrating Management of Sensor Data for a Real Time Decision Making and Response System   Reuse-14-01 2019 
Ozone Biofiltration Direct Potable Reuse Testing at Gwinnett County
  Reuse-15-11  2018 
Pathogen Risk Evaluation of Treatment and Monitoring System Performance for Potable Reuse
  Reuse-14-16  2018 
Curriculum and Content for Potable Reuse Operator Training
  Reuse-15-05 2018 
Demonstrating Redundancy and Monitoring to Achieve Reliable Potable Reuse
  Reuse-14-12  2018
From Collection Systems to Tap: Resilience of Treatment Processes for Direct Potable Reuse
  Reuse-14-13  2018
Comprehensive Analysis of Alternative Water Supply Projects Compared to Direct Potable Reuse and Water Supply Evaluation Tool (WaterSET)   Reuse-14-03   2018
Guidelines for Source Water Control Options and the Impact of Selected Strategies on Direct Potable Reuse   Reuse-13-12  2017
White Paper on the Feasibility of Establishing a Framework for Public Health Monitoring of Direct Potable Reuse   Reuse-14-14   2017 
Potable Reuse Research Compilation: Synthesis of Findings  Download Reuse-15-01   2016
Direct Potable Reuse Monitoring:  Testing Water Quality in a Municipal Wastewater Effluent Treated to Drinking Water Standards Volume 1 of 2
Direct Potable Reuse Monitoring: Testing Water Quality in a Municipal Wastewater Effluent Treated to Drinking Water Standards Volume 2 of 2 (Appendices) 
   Reuse 14-10  2016
Development of an Operation and Maintenance Plan and Training and Certification for Direct Potable Reuse (DPR) Systems Download  Reuse-13-13  2016
Guidelines for Engineered Storage for Direct Potable Reuse Download  Reuse-12-06  2016
Monitoring for Reliability and Process Control of Potable Reuse Applications Download   Reuse-11-01   2016

Model Communication Plans for Increasing Awareness and Fostering Acceptance of Direct Potable Reuse (PDF)

Supporting Documents:

Understanding Potable Reuse: A Key Part of Our Water Supply Solutions (PDF)
Potable Reuse Summary (PDF)
History of Potable Reuse in California (PDF)

   Reuse-13-02 2015 
White Paper on the Application of Molecular, Spectroscopic, and Other Novel Methods to Monitor Pathogens for Potable Reuse   Reuse-14-17   2015 
Equivalency of Advanced Treatment Trains for Potable Reuse   Reuse-11-02 (Phase 3)   2015
Demonstrating the Benefits of Engineered Direct Potable Reuse (DPR) versus De Facto Reuse Systems      2014 
Risk Reduction for Direct Potable Reuse   11-10   2014
The Opportunities and Economics of Direct Potable Reuse    Reuse-14-08  2014 

Ongoing DPR Research

Methods for Integrity Testing of NF and RO Membranes    Reuse-12-07   
Assessment of Techniques for Evaluating and Demonstrating Safety of Water from Direct Potable Reuse Treatment Facilities   Reuse-13-14  
Blending Requirements for Water from Direct Potable Reuse Treatment Facilities    Reuse-13-15   
Establishing Additional Log Reduction Credits for Wastewater Treatment Plants    Reuse-14-02   
Application of Bioanalytical Tools to Assess Biological Responses Associated with Water at DPR Facilities   Reuse-14-15  
Ensuring Stable Microbial Water Quality in Direct Potable Reuse Distribution Systems   Reuse-14-18  
Predicting RO Removal of Toxicologically Relevant Unique Organics   Reuse-14-19  
Creating a Roadmap for Bioassay Implementation in Reuse Waters: A Cross Disciplinary Workshop   Reuse-15-02  
Characterization and Treatability of TOC from DPR Processes Compared to Surface Water Supplies    Reuse-15-04   
Molecular Methods for Measuring Pathogen Viability/Infectivity    Reuse-15-07  
Optimization of Ozone-BAC Treatment Processes for Potable Reuse Applications    Reuse-15-10   
NDMA Precursor Control Strategies for DPR    Reuse-15-13   
Comparing Relative Human Health Risk of Indirect Potable Reuse and DPR   Reuse-15-18  
Evaluating Post Treatment Challenges for Potable Reuse Applications    Reuse-16-01   
Building-Scale Treatment for Direct Potable Water Reuse & Intelligent Control for Real Time Performance Monitoring   Reuse-16-02  
Fate of Sulfonamide Antibiotics through Biological Treatment in WRRFs Designed to Maximize Reuse Applications    Reuse-16-04  
Water Reuse Research
Hybrid NF-RO Sodium Chloride Removal Process Pilot Study    Reuse-17-01/4831 2019
Methods for Integrity Testing and Online Monitoring of NF and RO Membranes
  Reuse-12-07/4757  2019 
Predicting Reverse Osmosis Removal of Unique Organics   Reuse-14-19/4769   2019
Agricultural Use of Recycled Water: Impediments and Incentives   Reuse-15-08/4775   2019
White Paper on Water Reuse in Hydraulic Fracturing   Reuse-14-05/4927  2018
Characterization of the Microbiome of a State-of-the-Art Water Reuse System to Enhance Treatment Performance
   Reuse-16-05 2018 
Groundwater Replenishment with Recycled Water on Agricultural Lands in California
   Reuse-16-03 2018
Multipurpose Reuse of Reclaimed Water at an Electric Utility and for Wetlands Rehydration in Florida
   Reuse-15-12 2018 
Multi-Mode Filtration System for Wastewater Recovery and Desalination
   U5R15 2018 
Development of a Risk Management Strategy for Legionella in Reclaimed Water Systems   Reuse-12-05  2018
Occurrence, Proliferation, and Persistence of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance during Wastewater Treatment    WERF1C15 2018 
Developing Tools for Surface Water Nutrient Loading Attributable to Reclaimed Water    Reuse-13-11 2018
Use of Heated Metal Oxide Particles as Adsorbents for Membrane Fouling Reduction in Water Reuse and Desalination Applications    1Reuse-14-09  2017 
Impacts of Mainstream Low DO Conditions at a Full-Scale MBR Water Reuse    Reuse-13-08  2017
Controlling Trace Organic Compounds Using Alternative, Non-FAT Technology for Potable Water Reuse    Reuse-13-10  2017
A Framework for the Successful Implementation of On-site Industrial Water Reuse Download  Reuse-14-04   2017
Equivalency of Advanced Treatment Trains for Potable Reuse Download   Reuse-11-2-4  2016
Critical Control Point Assessment to Quantify Robustness and Reliability of Multiple Treatment Barriers of a DPR Scheme
Download  Reuse-13-03  2016
A Low-Energy Wastewater Treatment Process for Producing High Quality Reuse Water-Phase 2
Download  Reuse-10-06  2016
Database of Permitting Practices for Seawater Desalination Concentrate
  DESAL-13-07   2016 
Drivers, Successes, Challenges and Opportunities for Onsite Industrial Water Reuse: A Path Forward for Collaboration and Growth
   Reuse-13-04 2016
Evaluation of Historical Reuse Applications and Summary of Technical/Regulatory Issues and Related Solutions for Industrial Reuse Projects
  Reuse-12-03  2015 
Considering the Implementation of Direct Potable Reuse in Colorado

Colorado Direct Potable Reuse White Paper – An Overview

N/A   WERF5T10b  2015
Enhancing the Soil Aquifer Treatment Process for Potable Reuse
  Reuse-12-12   2015
Desalination Concentrate Management Policy Analysis for the Arid West
  WERF5C11   2015
Role of Retention Time in the Environmental Buffer of Indirect Potable Reuse Projects: An Investigation on Managed Aquifer Recharge
   Reuse-10-05  2015
Framework for Informed Planning Decisions Regarding Indirect Potable Reuse and Dual Pipe Systems
  Reuse-09-02   2015
Pilot Testing of Membrane Zero Liquid Discharge for Drinking Water Systems
 Download WERF5T10
Challenge Projects on Low Energy Treatment Schemes for Water Reuse: Phase 1 – Carollo Engineers, Inc.
Challenge Projects on Low Energy Treatment Schemes for Water Reuse: Phase 1 – University of Nevada, Reno
Challenge Projects on Low Energy Treatment Schemes for Water Reuse: Phase 1 – University of Notre Dame
Challenge Projects on Low Energy Treatment Schemes for Water Reuse: Phase 1 – University of Michigan
Tools to Assess and Understand the Relative Risks of Indirect Potable Reuse and Aquifer Storage and Recovery Projects   Reuse-06-018-1  2013
Downstream – Context, Understanding, Acceptance: Effect of Prior Knowledge of Unplanned Potable Reuse on the Acceptance of Planned Potable Reuse
   Reuse-09-01 2013 
Examining the Criteria for Direct Potable Reuse
  Reuse-11-02  2012
Demonstration of Membrane Zero Liquid Discharge for Drinking Water System: Literature Review
Long-Term Study on Landscape Irrigation Using Household Graywater – Experimental Study
Treatment Processes for Removal of Emerging Contaminants
Demonstrating Advanced Oxidation with Biodegradation for Removal of Carbamazepine
Stormwater Non-Potable Beneficial Uses and EFfects on Urban Infrastruture
Carb Process in the Removal of Pharmaceutical and PPCPs and Endocrine Disrupting Compounds Within a Conventional Wastewater Treatment Line (Supplemental Report)
Filter Loading Evaluation for Water Reuse    Reuse-02-03  2011
Guidance Manual for Separation of Graywater from Blackwater for Graywater Reuse
Source Separation and Treatment of Anthropogenic Urine
Development of the Integrated Urban Water Management Tool
Monitoring for Microconstituents in an Advanced Wastewater Treatment Facility and Modeling Discharge of Reclaimed Water
   Reuse-06-19  2010
Evaluation of QSPR Techniques for Wastewater Treatment Processes
Optimizing Filtration and Disinfection Systems with a Risk-Based Approach
Identifying Hormonally Active Compounds, Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Product Ingredients of Health Concern from Potential Presence in Water Intended for Indirect Potable Reuse
    Reuse-5-05  2010
Contributions of Household Chemicals to Sewage and their Relevance to Municipal Wastewater Systems and the Environment
Development of Indicators and Surrogates for Chemical Contaminant Removal during Wastewater Treatment and Reclamation
When to Consider Distributed Systems in an Urban and Surburban Context
Disinfection of Wastewater Effluent: Comparison of Alternative Technologies
Microbial Risk Assessment Interface Tool and User Documentation Guide
Using Rainwater to Grow Livable Communities
Fate of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products through Wastewater Treatment Processes
Rejection of Wastewater-Derived Micropollutants in High-Pressure Membrane  Applications  Leading to Indirect Potable Reuse
   Reuse-02-01  2006
Best Practices for Developing Indirect Potable Reuse Projects
   Reuse-01-04  2004
Social Science (Economics, Planning, Energy, Regulatory/Policy, Public Perception)
Development of Habitat Restoration Programs for the Mitigation of Impingement and Entrainment Effects from Intakes for Seawater Desalination Facilities
    Reuse-13-06  2016
Establishing Nitrification Reliability Guidelines for Water Reuse
    Reuse-10-15 2015
The Value of Water Supply Reliability in the CII Sector
    Reuse-09-04  2015
Creating a Clearinghouse of Knowledge-Based Resources on Public Acceptance of Water Reuse and Desalination
   Reuse-12-08  2014
Urban Recycled Water Programs: Identifying Evaluation Metrics and Understanding Key Organizational Relationships
   Reuse-10-17  2014
Fit for Purpose Water: The Cost of Overtreating Reclaimed Water
    Reuse-10-01  2014
The Future of Purple Pipes: Exploring the Best Use of Nonpotable Recycled Water in Diversified Urban Water System
   Reuse-10-14  2013
Feasibility Study on Model Development to Estimate and Minimize Greenhouse Gas Concentrations and Carbon Footprint of Water Reuse and Desalination Facilities
   Reuse-10-12  2013
Treatment, Public Health, and Regulatory Issues Associated with Graywater Reuse
    Reuse-10-02  2013
Guidance for Implementing Reuse in New Buildings and Developments to Achieve LEED/Sustainability Goals
   Reuse-10-08  2013
Evaluating Long- and Short-Term Planning Under Climate Change Scenarios to Better Assess the Role of Water Reuse
   Reuse-08-15  2013 
Evaluation and Optimization of Emerging and Existing Energy Recovery Devises for Desalination and Wastewater Membrane Treatment Plants
    Reuse-08-14 2013
Requirements and Opportunities for Water Reuse in Energy and Biofuels
   Reuse-08-12 2013 
Implications of Future Water Supply Sources for Energy Demands
   Reuse-08-16  2012
Interagency Partnerships for Water Reuse
   Reuse-06-21 2012 
Guidebook on Water Reuse On-Site Inspection    Reuse-04-09   2012 
Talking About Water: Vocabulary and Images that Support Informed Decisions about Water Recycling and Desalination
    Reuse-07-03  2011 
Guidance on Links Between Water Reclamation and Reuse and Regional Growth
    Reuse-06-16  2011
Assessment of Approaches to Achieve Nationally Consistent Reclaimed Water Standards
    Reuse-08-01  2010
Developing a Pragmatic Research Agenda for Examining the Value of Water Supply Reliability
    Reuse-06-02 2009
Evaluating Pricing Levels and Structures to Support Reclaimed Water Systems
    Reuse-05-01 2009
Extending the Integrated Resource Planning Process to Include Water Reuse and Other Nontraditional Water Sources     Reuse-04-10  2007 
An Economic Framework for Evaluating Benefits and Costs of Water Reuse    Reuse-03-06   2006
Marketing Nonpotable Recycled Water: A Guidebook for Successful Public Outreach & Customer Marketing     Reuse-03-05  2006
Irrigation of Parks, Playgrounds, and Schoolyard with Reclaimed Water: Extent and Safety
    Reuse-04-06  2005
Water Quality & Human Health (Pathogens & Chemicals) Research
Formation of Nitrosamines and Perfluoroalkyl Acids During Ozonation in Water Reuse Applications
   Reuse-11-08   2015
Regulated and Emerging Disinfection Byproducts During the Production of High Quality Recycled Water
   Reuse-10-18  2015 
Comparison of Chemical Composition of Reclaimed and Conventional Waters
   Reuse-06-06   2015 
Real-Time Monitoring Tools to Characterize Microbal Contaminants in Reclaimed Water: State-of-the-Science Assessment
    Reuse-11-06 2014 
Enhanced Disinfection of Adenoviruses with UV Irradiation
   Reuse-06-11  2014
Development of Bioanalytical Techniques to Assess the Potential Human Health Impacts of Recycled Water
    Reuse-10-07  2014
Disinfection Guidelines for Satellite Water Recycling Facilities
   Reuse-08-07   2013
Review of Nanomaterial Research and Relevance for Water Reuse
   Reuse-10-13   2013
Recycled Water Use in Zoo and Wildlife Facility Settings
    Reuse-07-06  2013
Evaluation of Impact of Nanoparticle Pollutants on Water Reclamation
   Reuse-07-04   2013 
Examination of Microbiological Methods for Use with Reclaimed Waters
   Reuse-07-01   2013 
Development of Markers to Identify Nutrient Sources Impacting Florida’s Surface Water Bodies
   Reuse-09-08   2012
Potentially Infectivity Assay for Giardia Iamblia Cysts
    Reuse-08-18  2012
Health Effects Concerns of Water Reuse with Research Recommendations
   Reuse-06-04   2012
Determination of Cryptosporidium and Giardia Occurance, Infectivity, and Genotyping in Wastewater Effluents
   Reuse-06-03  2012
Evaluate Wetland Systems for Treated Wastewater Performance to Meet Competing Effluent Water Quality Goals
    Reuse-05-06  2011 
Guidance Document on the Microbiological Quality and Biostability of Reclaimed Water Following Storage and Distribution
   Reuse-05-02   2010
Development and Evaluation of Ultrafiltration Methods to Concentrate Pathogens from Reclaimed Water
   Reuse-04-13   2010
Leaching of Metals from Aquifer Soils during Infiltration of Low-Ionic-Strength Reclaimed Water: Determination of Kinetics and Potential Mitigation Strategies    Reuse-06-05  2009 
The Effects of Salinity on the Removal of Contaminants of Concern during Biological Water Reclamation
    Reuse-05-08  2009
A Protocol for Estimating Potential Water Quality Impacts of Recycled Projects    Reuse-04-16   2009
Collecting, Exploring and Interpreting Microbiological Data Associated with Reclaimed Water Systems
   Reuse-04-12  2009
Development of Indicators and Surrogate for Chemical Contaminant
   Reuse-03-14 2008
Application of Microbial Risk Assessment Techniques to Estimate Risk Due to Exposure to Reclaimed Waters
   Reuse-04-11   2007
Investigation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) Fate and Transport
    Reuse-02-02  2006 
Removal and Destruction of NDMA and NDMA Precursors during Wastewater Treatment     Reuse-01-02  2006
Alternative Methods for Analysis of NDMA and Other Nitrosamines in Water and Wastewater
    Reuse-01-1  2005
Storage & Distribution Systems Research
Develop Management Practices to Control Potential Health Risks and Aesthetic Issues Associated with Storage and Distribution of Reclaimed Water
    Reuse-11-03  2015
Approaches to Maintaining Consistently High Quality Recycled Water in Storage and Distribution Systems
   Reuse-08-04  2014
Seasonal Storage of Reclaimed Water
    Reuse-09-05 2012 
Natural Systems, ASR, & Groundwater Research
Development of New Tracers to Determine Groundwater Travel Time near Managed Recharge Operations
    Reuse-09-11  2015
Maximizing Recovery of Recycled Water for Groundwater Recharge Employing an Integrated Membrane System
    Reuse-08-10  2011
Attenuation of Emerging Contaminants in Streams Augmented with Recycled Water
   Reuse-06-20  2011
Selection and Testing of Tracers for Measuring Travel Times in Groundwater Aquifers Augmented with Reclaimed Water
   Reuse-05-07   2009 
A Reconnaissance-Level Quantitative Comparison of Reclaimed Water, Surface Water and Groundwater
   Reuse-02-08  2009
Reclaimed Water Aquifer Storage and Recovery: Potential Changes in Water Quality
   Reuse-03-09  2007

Ongoing Projects


Expected Completion

Design and Validation Protocols for UV Disinfection Systems Fact Sheet    ENER16C15  TBD
UV Disinfection Knowledgebase for Reuse Applications
    Reuse-14-11  TBD
Research into Low Energy Treatment Alternatives to Activated Sludge Processes